Most Endangered Primates

Most Endangered Primates

Here we report the seventh iteration of the biennial listing of a consensus of the 25 primate species considered to be among the most endangered worldwide and the most in need of conservation measures. The 2012 – 2014 list was drawn up during an open meeting held during the XXIV Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS), Cancun, 14 August 2012. It is a joint effort by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the Intern ational Primatological Society,


The 2012 -2014 list of the world’s 25 most endangered primates has five species from Africa, six from Madagascar, nine from Asia and five from the Neotropics. In terms of individual countries, Mad agascar tops the list with six species. Vietnam has five, Indonesia three, Brazil two, and China,Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo,

The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates, and the countries where they are found
  • Eastern Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri ) Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Mt. Rungwe galago (Galagoides rondoensis) Tanzania
  • Tana River red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) Kenya
  • Roloway monkey (Cercopithecus roloway) Ghana, Ivory Coas
  • Bioko red colobus (Procolobus pennantii pennantii) Equatorial Guinea (Island of Bioko)
  • Indri indri (Indri) Madagascar
  • Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur( Microcebus berthae) Madagascar
  • Sclater’s black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) Madagascar
  • Perrier’s sifaka (Propithecus perrieri) Madagascar
  • Silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus) Madagascar
  • Northern sportive lemur ( Lepilemur septentrionalis) Madagascar
  • San Martíni titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe ) Peru
  • Northern brown howler monkey( Alouatta guariba guariba) Brazi
  • Ka’apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) Brazil
  • Variegated spider monkey (Ateles hybridus brunneus) Colombia,Venezuela
  • Ecuadorian brown – headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) Ecuador
  • Pygmy tarsier (Tarsiuspumilus) Indonesia (Sulawesi)
  • Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) Indonesia (Java)
  • Pig – tailed langur (Nasalis / Simias concolor) Indonesia (Mentawai Is.)
  • Golden-headed langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus) Vietnam
  • Delacour’s langur (Trachypithecus delacouri) Vietnam
  • Grey-shanked douc (Pygathrix nemaeus cinerea) Vietnam
  • Western purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus nestor) Sri Lanka
  • Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) Vietnam
  • Hainan black-crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus hainanus) China (Hainan Island)


Nine primate species were added to the 2012- 2014 list (Table 3). Seven of them were placed on the list of the world’s 25 most endangered primates for the first time. The Tana River red colobus and the Ecuadorian brown – headed spider monkey had already been on previous iterations of the list, but were subsequently removed in favor of other highly three atened species of the same genera. The 2012 – 2014 list now contains two members each of these genera, thus particularly highlighting the severe threats they are facing.

During the discussion of the 20122014 list at the XXIV Congress of IPS in Cancun in 2012 a number of other highly threatened primate species were considered for inclusion (Table 4). For all of these, the situation in the wild is as precarious as it is for those species that finally made it on the list.

“All evidence tells us that the first extinctions among Africa’s primates will occur among the red colobus,” said Thomas Butynski, director of CI’s Eastern Africa Biodiversity Hotspots Program. “Miss Waldron’s red colobus in Ghana and Ivory Coast, and Bouvier’s red colobus in the Republic of Congo may already be extinct, while the Tana River red colobus in Kenya and Bioko red colobus in Equatorial Guinea could be gone within the next 20 years.”



Most non-human hominoids are rare or endangered. The chief threat to most of the endangered species is loss of tropical rainforest habitat, though some populations are further imperiled by hunting for bushmeat.

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